Aidana Akessina, http://www.kisi.kz/images/izdanie/CAA/__3_2020.pdf
Modern border area studies reflect the continuity and changes of scientific idea in the conceptualization of social space. Although space can be abstract and absolute, it is the borders that "fix" it and turn it into a concrete and understandable social and geographical area. As a result of this awareness, the study of borders has transformed from an interest in the study of formal state borders and ethnocultural territories to the study of borders at various socio-spatial and geographical scales, from local and municipal to global, regional and supranational levels. In addition, the steady growth of borderline research can be partly explained by the emergence of discussions about globalization in the late 1980s and early 1990s.